What insects are resistant to insecticides?

What insects are resistant to insecticides?

Species that have developed resistance to most insecticides used against them include the cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis, in Egypt; the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus, in Australia; the housefly Musca domestica; and many species of Anopheles mosquitoes worldwide (Forgash 1984, Georghiou 1986).

How do insects develop resistance to insecticides?

Upon exposure to insecticides, insects that do not carry the resistance genes die, thus allowing the individuals with the resistance genes to survive and reproduce, creating more resistant insects. With every generation the number of resistant insects increase.

What is insecticide resistance?

Insecticide resistance is defined by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) [31] as ‘a heritable change in the sensitivity of a pest population that is reflected in the repeated failure of a product to achieve the expected level of control when used according to the label recommendation for that pest …

What is insecticide resistance in entomology?

Insecticide resistance is a heritable change in the susceptibility of a pest population to a particular insecticide, or insecticide group. In practice, insects that repeatedly fail to be adequately controlled by the registered rate of an insecticide are said to be insecticide resistant.

How do you manage insecticide resistance?

Managing Pesticide Resistance

  1. Minimize Pesticide Use. Minimizing pesticide use is fundamental to pesticide resistance management.
  2. Avoid Tank Mixes. Avoid combinations (mixes) of two insecticides or miticides in a single application.
  3. Avoid Persistent Chemicals.
  4. Use Long-term Rotations.

What is multiple insecticide resistance?

A closely related phenomenon, multiple resistance, occurs in insect populations that resist two or more insecticide classes with unlike modes of action. Insects develop this type of resistance by expressing multiple resistance mechanisms.

How fast do insects become resistant to pesticides?

Insecticides are used to control insect pests. Insect resistance to the synthetic insecticide DDT was documented in 1947 and since that time, key pest organisms have been found with resistance to new insecticides within 2-20 years of release.

What can researchers do to help deal with insecticide resistance?

Take Steps to Avoid Insecticide Resistance

  1. Monitor pests — Use research-based sampling procedures to determine if pesticides are necessary (based on action/economic thresholds) and the best application timing (when pests are most susceptible).
  2. Employ appropriate control measures —
  3. Select and use insecticides wisely —

How many insects are resistant to pesticides?

Worldwide, more than 500 species of insects and related arthropods are resistant to insecticides. To search a registry of resistant insect pests, log onto the Arthropod Pesticide Resistance Database. Resistance may develop to only a single insecticide.

How can we solve the problem of insecticide resistance?

What factors influence pesticide resistance?

Factors Affecting Resistance Development of the “Pest” in the Environment

  • an organism’s life cycle,
  • the organisms rate of its population growth, and.
  • the genetics of the organism.
  • October 8, 2022