What do Tanycytes do?

What do Tanycytes do?

Tanycytes, glial-like cells that line the third ventricle, are emerging as components of the hypothalamic networks that control body weight and energy balance. They contact the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and send processes that come into close contact with neurons in the arcuate and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei.

Where are Tanycytes located?

Tanycytes are special ependymal cells found in the third ventricle of the brain, and on the floor of the fourth ventricle and have processes extending deep into the hypothalamus. It is possible that their function is to transfer chemical signals from the cerebrospinal fluid to the central nervous system.

What produces Thyrotropic hormone?

Thyroid stimulating hormone is produced and released into the bloodstream by the pituitary gland. It controls production of the thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, by the thyroid gland by binding to receptors located on cells in the thyroid gland.

Where is thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH made?

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a tripeptide (glu-his-pro-NH2) hormone that is primarily produced in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus and represents the most proximal member of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis.

What is the physiological role of hypothalamic Tanycytes in metabolism?

Tanycytes are modulators of energy balance. By interacting with both neurons and vessels—locally in the mediobasal hypothalamus and globally through the cerebrospinal fluid—tanycytes modulate both orexigenic and anorexigenic pathways and participate in the regulation of glucose homeostasis and energy balance.

What is hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis?

The hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis (HPT axis for short, a.k.a. thyroid homeostasis or thyrotropic feedback control) is part of the neuroendocrine system responsible for the regulation of metabolism and also responds to stress.

What are glial cells?

Glial cells are smaller than neurons but are greater in number than nerve cells in the brain. Glial cells do not have axon and dendrites. However, they come into play during neural development or recovery from neural injury and during modulation of synaptic action and propagation of nerve signals.

What is the target organ of Thyrotropic hormone?

Endocrine gland/ source of hormone Hormone Target organ or tissue
Anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) LH (luteinizing hormone) Ovaries / testes (Leydig cells)
GH (growth hormone) All tissues
TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone) Thyroid gland
Prolactin Mammary gland

Is glial scarring harmful?

Detrimental effects of the scar The glial scar also prevents neuronal regrowth. Following trauma to the CNS, axons begin to sprout and attempt to extend across the injury site in order to repair the damaged regions. However, the scar prevents axonal extensions via physical and chemical means.

Is glial scarring good or bad?

The Glial Scar Serves as a Restrictive Border to Limit Fibrotic Tissue and Macrophages After the Acute Stage of SCI. Many scientists have proposed that the glial scar may become more harmful than beneficial in the chronic phase of SCI.

How does the hypothalamus regulate TSH?

The hypothalamus senses low circulating levels of thyroid hormone (Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroxine (T4)) and responds by releasing thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). The TRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).

What does the HPA axis regulate?

A major component of the homeostatic response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, an intricate, yet robust, neuroendocrine mechanism that mediates the effects of stressors by regulating numerous physiological processes, such as metabolism, immune responses, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

What are 3 types of glial cells?

There are three types of glial cells in the mature central nervous system: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglial cells (Figure 1.4A—C). Astrocytes, which are restricted to the brain and spinal cord, have elaborate local processes that give these cells a starlike appearance (hence the prefix “astro”).

What is the function of glia?

Each type of glial cell performs specific jobs that keep the brain functioning. Primarily, glial cells provide support and protection to the neurons (nerve cells), maintain homeostasis, cleaning up debris, and forming myelin. They essentially work to care for the neurons and the environment they are in.

  • August 14, 2022