What causes humeral retroversion?
What causes humeral retroversion?
The asymmetric increase in retroversion of the dominant as compared with the nondominant shoulder can most likely be attributed to external forces on the proximal humerus from throwing during the period of growth (up to age 16).
What is humeral Retroversion?
Humeral retroversion is generally defined as the angular difference between the orientation of the proximal humeral head and the axis of the elbow at the distal humerus.
What is retroversion of the shoulder?
Glenoid retroversion is the abnormal posterior angulation of the articular surface of the glenoid of the scapula and is of importance as it predisposes to posterior glenohumeral instability and tears of the posterior labrum.
What is humeral torsion angle?
Angle of humeral torsion is defined as the angle formed between the proximal and distal articular axis of the humerus. This angle is measured at the intersection of two lines: one that evenly bisects the articular surface of the humeral head proximally and the second being the transepicondylar line distally [1,2].
What is osseous adaptation?
Bone cells begin with the genetic blueprint and sculpt it until the skeletal design meets the loading requirements. This process, termed bone adaptation, requires bone cells to detect mechanical signals in situ and integrate these signals into appropriate changes in the bone architecture.
What is the anatomic retroversion of the humeral head?
Humeral head retroversion was defined as the angle between the humeral head axis and both the elbow epicondylar axis and the elbow tangent axis (Fig. 3B). The accuracy of this coordinate measuring machine, as quoted by the manufacturer, was 10 μm and was considered unimportant for this application.
How is glenoid Retroversion measured?
Measurement of version: Retroversion was measured as the angle subtended by the glenoid line and a perpendicular to the scapular line on the posterior aspect of the scapula. Retroversion was assigned negative values, anteversion positive values.
What is the meaning of retroversion?
Definition of retroversion 1 : the bending backward of the uterus and cervix. 2 : the act or process of turning back or regressing.
What is normal glenoid retroversion?
Average glenoid retroversion was 1° ± 3°, ranging from -9° to 13°. Both humeral head retroversion and glenoid retroversion were significantly higher on the dominant side than on the nondominant side and significantly higher in men than in women.
What is the angle of femoral torsion?
This angle has been reported to range from 5 to 40 degrees, but the average in adults is 10 to 20 degrees. 3. A torsion angle of greater than 20 degrees is considered excessive femoral anteversion, whereas a torsion angle of less than 10 degrees is considered femoral retroversion.
Is a bone?
Bones are made of connective tissue reinforced with calcium and specialised bone cells. Most bones also contain bone marrow, where blood cells are made. Bones work with muscles and joints to hold our body together and support freedom of movement. This is called the musculoskeletal system.
What is retroversion of the hip?
Femoral retroversion (also known as hip retroversion) is a rotational or torsional deformity in which the femur (thighbone) twists backward (outward) in relation to the knee. Because the lower part of the femur is connected to the knee, this also means that the knee is twisted outward relative to the hip.
What is normal glenoid version?
Normal glenoid version in most studies has been reported close to 0°, sometimes with slight anteversion but more often slight retroversion with values typically less than 10° in either direction [1–8]. Variance from normal version alters glenohumeral mechanics and may predispose to instability and arthropathy.
What is normal glenoid Retroversion?
How is glenoid Retroversion CT scan measured?
Measurement of version: Retroversion was measured as the angle subtended by the glenoid line and a perpendicular to the scapular line on the posterior aspect of the scapula.
What is acetabular Retroversion?
Acetabular retroversion (AR) consists of a malorientation of the acetabulum in the sagittal plane. AR is associated with changes in load transmission across the hip, being a risk factor for early osteoarthrosis. The pathophysiological basis of AR is an anterior acetabular hyper-coverage and an overall pelvic rotation.
What is Friedman’s line?
The scapular axis (Friedman line) is marked in red. The line perpendicular to the scapular axis passing through the centre of the glenoid is marked in green and the line connecting the rims of the glenoid is marked in yellow. The angle of glenoid version is marked in blue. Source publication.
How do you fix femoral retroversion?
An excessive femoral retroversion can place stress on hip and knee joints, often leading to joint pain and abnormal wear. In these situations, a surgical procedure known as a femoral osteotomy may be used. This surgery includes cutting and realigning the femur.